فيسبوك تويتر RSS


  #1  
قديم October 4, 2007, 12:29 PM
 
مطلوب :موضوعات اقتصادية بالاللغة الانجليزية

السلام عليكم ..
اعضاء المنتدى انا ابحث عن موضوعات اقتصادية او تجارية او تسويقية لاتتجاوز 4 او5 صفحات باللغة الانجليزية يفضل ان تكون الترجمة مرفقة مع النص .
شكررررا لكم
رد مع اقتباس
  #2  
قديم October 5, 2007, 12:56 AM
 
ترجمة كاملة لبحث إدارة الاتصال بالجمهور

ترجمة كاملة لبحث إدارة الاتصال بالجمهور المنشور على هذا الموقع

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

· Know what steps are involved in developing an advertising program.
· Know how should sales promotion decisions be made.
· Know what are the guidelines for effective brand-building events and experiences.
· Know how can companies exploit the potential of public relations and publicity.















Developing and Managing an Advertising Program
What's the meaning of advertising?
Advertising is any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor.

Organization handle advertising in different ways



[IMG]file:///C:/DOCUME~1/ADMINI~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image001.gif[/IMG] In small companies, advertising is handled by someone in the sales or marketing department, who works with an advertising agency.
[IMG]file:///C:/DOCUME~1/ADMINI~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image001.gif[/IMG] A large company will often set up its own department, whose manager reports to the vice president of marketing.
[IMG]file:///C:/DOCUME~1/ADMINI~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image001.gif[/IMG] The department's job is to propose a budget, development strategy, approve ads and campaigns, and handle direct-mail advertising, dealer displays and other forms of advertising.
[IMG]file:///C:/DOCUME~1/ADMINI~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image001.gif[/IMG] In developing an advertising program, marketing managers must and buyer motives.
[IMG]file:///C:/DOCUME~1/ADMINI~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image001.gif[/IMG] Then they can make the five major decision knows as "the five M".














































Setting the objectives
· The advertising objectives must flow from prior decision on target market, brand positioning, and the marketing program.
  • Advertising objectives can be classified according to whether their aim is to inform, persuade, remind, or reinforce.







· Informative advertising aims to create brand awareness and knowledge of new products or new features of existing products.
Example: one of the all-time most memorable ads started Australian rugby player Jacko for Energizer batteries. He was shown dressed as a battery, bursting into an early morning subway car repeatedly shouting out the brand name to the commuters unfortunately, people remembered the name-but hated the ad:
Brand awareness cannot come at the expense ob brand attitudes.
Persuasive advertising: aims to create liking, preference, conviction, and product or service.
Some persuasive advertising uses comparative advertising, which makes an explicit comparison of the attributes of two or more brands.
For years, VISA has run a successful ad campaign called "It's everywhere you want to be" that show cases desirable location and events that don't accept the American Express card.
Comparative advertising works best when it elicits cognitive and affective motivations simul tancously.
Reminder advertising: amis to stimulate repeat purchase of products and services.
Expensive, fou-color coca-cola ads in magazines are intended to remind people to purchase coca-cola.
Reinforcement advertising amis to convince current purchasers that they made the right choice.
Automobile ads often depict satisfied custoers enjoying special features of thei new car.































Deciding on the Advertising Budget





There are five specific factors to consider when setting the advertising budget:
1. Stage in the product life cycle:
New producets typically recevie large advertising budgets to build awareness and to gain consumer trial.
Esta a blished brands usually are supported with lower advertising budgets as a ratio to sales.
2. Market share and consumer base:
High -market- share brands usually require less advertising expenditure as a percentage of sales to maintain share.
3. Competition and clutter:
In a market with a large number of competitions and high advertising spending, a brand must advertise more heavily to be heard.
Even simple clutter from advertisments not directly competitive to the brand ceats a need for heavier advertising.
4. Advertising frequency:
The number of reprtitions needed to put across the brand's message to consumers has an important impact on the advertising budget.
5. Product substitutability:
Brandin less-well differentiated or commodity like product classes (beer, soft drinks, bants, and airlines) requier heavy advertising to establish a differential image.
Advertising is also important when a brand can offer unique physical benefits or features.














Designing effective advertising campaigns is both an art and a science.
To develop a message startegy, advertisers go through three steps.
1. MESSAGE GENERATION AND EVALUATION
2. CREATIVE DEVELOPMENT AND EXECUTION
3. SOCIAL-RESPONSIBILITY REVIEW.

It is important to generate fresh insights and avoid using the same appeals and positions as others
Example: many of todays automobile ads have a sameness about them- a car driving at high speed on a curved mountion road or across adesert.
The result is that only a weak link is established between the brand and the message.
A good ad normally focuses on one or two core selling propositions.
The advertiser should conduct market research to determine which appeal works best with its target audience.
When they find an effective appeal, advertisers should prepare a creative brief typicaly covering one or two pages.
Includes:
Key message.
Target audience.
Communications objectives.
Key brand benefits.
Supports for the brand promise.
Media.
All the team member working on the campaign need to agree on the creative brief befor investing in costly ads.


The ad's impoct depends not only on what is said, but often more important, on how it is said.
Message execution can be decisive.
In preparing an ad campaign, the advertiser can prepare a copy strtegy statement describing:
· The objective.
· *******.
· Support.
· Tone of the desired ad.



Advertiser and their agencies must be sure advertising does not overstep social and legal norms.
Public policy markers have developed a substantial body of laws and regulations to govern advertising.
Example:
Under U.S law, advertisers must not make false claims, such as stating that a product cures something when it doesnot.
They must a void fales demonstrations, such as using sand-covered plexiglass instead of sandpaper to demonstrate that a razor blade can shave sandpaper.






Deciding on Media and Measuring Effectiveness

After choosing the message, the advertiser's next task is to choose media to carry it.

Media Selection
Media selection is finding the most cost-effective media to deliver the desired number and type of exposures to the target audience.
Media selection
Reach.
Frequency.
Impact.
Reach: The number of different persons or households exposed to a particular media schedule at least once during a specified time period.
Frequency: The number of time within the specified time period that an average person or household is exposed to the message.
Impact: The qualitative value of an exposure through a given medium (Thus a food ad in good housekeeping would have a higher impact than fortune magazin).













Choosing Among Major Media Types

The media planner has to know the capacity of the major advertising media types to deliver reach, frequency and impact.
Media planners make their choices by considering the following variables:







Target audience and media habits.
Product characteristics.
Message characteristics.
Cost.
Target audience and media habits:
Radio and television are the most effective media for reaching teenagers.
Product characteristics:
Media types have different potential for demonstration, visualization, explanation, believability, and color.
Women's dresses are best shown in color magazines, and kodak cameras are best demstrated on TV.
Message characteristics:
Timeliness and information ******* will influence media choies.
A message announcing a majorsale tomorrow will require radio,TV, or newspaper.
A message containing a great deal of technical data might require specialized magazines or mailing.
Cost: Television is very expensive, whereas newspaper advertising is relatively inexpensive





Major Media Type
- Newspaper - Outdoor
- Television - Yellow pages
- Direct mail - Newsletters
- Radio - Brochures
- Magaziens - Telephone
- Internet




























Table 18.2 Marketing Communication Ependitures(2001)
Media $ % of Total
TV 52.7 22
Radio 19.4 8
Internet 3.4 1
Magazines 12.3 5
Newspaper 49.4 21
























Measures of Audience Size
In making choices, the planner has to rely on measyrement services that provido estimates of audience size, composition, and media cost.
Audience size has swrvel pooible measures:






§ Circulation.
§ Audience.
§ Effective audience.
§ Effective ad_exposed audience.
Circulation: The number of physical units carring the advertising.
Audience: The number of people exposed to vehicle.
Effective audience: The number of people with target audience charasteristics exposed to the vehicl.
Effective ad_exposed audience: The number of people with target audience characteristics who actually saw the ad.
















Factors Affecting Timing Patterns
§ Buyer turnover.
§ Purchase frequency.
§ Forgetting rate.
Buyer turnover: expresses the rate at which new buyers enter the market.
The higher this rate, the more continuous the advertising should be.
Purchase frequency: The number of times during the period that tha average buyer buys the product.
The higher the purchase frequency, the more continuous the avertising shoul be.
Forgetting rate: Is the rate at which the buyer forgets the brand.
The higher the forgetting rate,the more continuous the advertising should be.





















In launching a new product, the advertiser has to choose amonge




§ Continutiy.
§ Concentration.
§ Flighting.
§ Pulsing.
Continutiy: is achieved by scheduling





























Sales Promotion
Collection of incentive tools, mostly short term, designed to stimulate quicker or greater purchase of particular products or services by consumers or the trade.






























Sales Promotion Tactics
Consumer_ directed Trade_ directed
* Samples * Price offs
* Coupons * Allowances
* Cash refund offers * Free goods
* Price offs * Sales contests
* Premiums * Spiffs
* Prizes * Trade shows
* Patronage rewards *Specialty advertising
* Free trials
*Tie_ in promotion























Using Sales Promotions
Establish objectives
Select tools
Develop program
Pretest
Implement and control
Evaluate results


























Events and Experiences
§ 411.14 billion spent on sponsorship in 2004.
§ 69% sports.
§ 10% tours.
§ 7% festivals, fairs.
§ 5% arts.
§ 9% causes.
Events objectives
Marketers report a number of reasons why they sponsor events:
1. To identify with a particular target market or life style.
2. To increase brand awareness.
3. To create or reinforce consumer perceptions of key brand image associations.
4. To enhance corporate image dimensions.
5. To create experiences and evoke feelings.
6. To express commitment to the community or on social issues.
7. To entertain key client or reward employees.
8. To permit merchandising or promotional opportunities.


















Using Sponsored Events
Establish objectives.
Choose event opportunities.
Design program.
Implements and control.
Measure effectiveness.



Public Relations
Public relation (PR) : A variety of programs designed to promote or protect a company's image or its individual products.

Public Relations Functions
1. press relations.
2. Product publicity.
3. Corporate communications.
4. lobbying.
5. Counseling.

1.press relations: presenting news and information about the organization in the most positive light.
2. Product publicity: sponsoring efforts to publicize specific products.
3. Corporate communications: promoting understand of the organization through internal and external communication.
4. lobbying: dealing with legislators government officials to product or defeat legislation and regulation.
5. Counseling: advising management about public issues and company positions and image during good times and bad.







Marketing public Relations Functions
1. Assist in product launches.
2. Assist in repositioning a mature product.
3. Build interest in a product category.
4. Influence specific target groups.
5. Defend product.
6. Build corporate image.



رد مع اقتباس
  #3  
قديم October 6, 2007, 09:07 AM
 
رد: مطلوب :موضوعات اقتصادية بالاللغة الانجليزية

شكررا جزيلا لك تفاعل سريع لم اكن اتوقعه ..جدا شكرا
اللهم يسر لك كل عسير
رد مع اقتباس
إضافة رد

مواقع النشر (المفضلة)

الكلمات الدلالية (Tags)
موضوعات, مطلوب, الانجليزية, اقتصادية, بالاللغة

أدوات الموضوع
انواع عرض الموضوع


المواضيع المتشابهه
الموضوع كاتب الموضوع المنتدى مشاركات آخر مشاركة
كلمات و موضوعات 1 شهاب2007 تعليم اللغات الاجنبية 5 December 26, 2007 12:26 AM
دبي وأبوظبي.. عوالم اقتصادية متباينة في بلد واحد UAEian مقالات حادّه , مواضيع نقاش 0 October 1, 2007 07:47 AM
كبسولة اقتصادية بو راكان علم الاقتصاد 2 December 10, 2006 06:25 AM
السعودية..تأسيس مدينة اقتصادية رابعة في جازان برأسمال 15 مليار ريال المسافر علم الاقتصاد 3 November 8, 2006 01:08 PM
السعودية..تأسيس مدينة اقتصادية رابعة في جازان برأسمال 15 مليار ريال المسافر أرشيف الأخبار اليومية 3 November 7, 2006 10:46 PM


الساعة الآن 02:06 AM


Powered by vBulletin® Copyright ©2000 - 2019, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.
Search Engine Friendly URLs by vBSEO 3.6.0 PL2
المقالات والمواد المنشورة في مجلة الإبتسامة لاتُعبر بالضرورة عن رأي إدارة المجلة ويتحمل صاحب المشاركه كامل المسؤوليه عن اي مخالفه او انتهاك لحقوق الغير , حقوق النسخ مسموحة لـ محبي نشر العلم و المعرفة - بشرط ذكر المصدر